Naturally, wild peafowl consume an omnivorous diet composed of both animals, insects and vegetation. Popular feed items include ants, small rodents, seeds and small reptiles. When raised in captivity, domestic peafowl are often feed a commercial bird and poultry feed while also feeding upon natural material while foraging and free ranging.
The typical peacock or peahen is not too picky about what he or she consumes. Many poultry hobbyists who raise peafowl in their backyard feed peacocks cracked grain such as oats and corn. Peafowl can also be fed bird seed, insects and other items found in a pasture or green space. Peafowl are not a standard type of poultry such as a goose or chicken, and should be allowed access to natural foraging material for optimum health.
The nutritional needs of your peafowl and what you feed peafowl varies according to their purpose. If breeding peafowl, you should feed them a gamebird maintenance formulation available from your local feed or farm supply store. Additionally, you may wish to supplement the peafowl feed with a high-protein, meat-based feed such as cat food (dog food is typically plant-based). Scratch grain will also be enjoyed by your peafowl and can be fed liberally.
If raising peafowl from young chicks, feed the baby peafowl starter feed that is un-medicated. The starter peafowl feed should have a protein percentage of approximately 30%. From 6 weeks of age forward, you may reduce the protein percentages of the peacock feed to 19-20%. Once they reach a mature age, you may transition the peafowl to standard peacock and peahen feed as discussed previously.
Your peafowl will also enjoy fresh vegetables and fruit as a supplement to their dry diet. This is especially important if raising the peafowl in a confined space such as a chicken coop or similar poultry housing where they cannot forage for grass, seeds and bugs. You may also try to give your peafowl live feed such as mealworms, available at bait shops and exotic pet supply stores.
Consider feeding peafowl a vitamin and mineral supplement to boost their health. The supplement can be administered in a variety of methods, such as by mixing it with their water or mixing it in the peafowl feed.
Regardless of what you are feeding peafowl, always provide lots of clean and fresh water. This is critically important in the heat of the summer when your peafowl may become dehydrated.